In a document from the Counts of Castell, Prichsenstadt was mentioned for the first time in 1258 when the Counts transferred it to the Knight Heinrich von 'Briesendorf' as a treasury loan.  The knights sat at the Prichsenstadt castle. In 1367 Prichsenstadt was granted city rights by Emperor Charles IV. Then it passed into the possession of his son King Wenceslaus of Bohemia.
After a few arguments, the place came into the possession of the Burgraves of Nuremberg and later the Margraves of Brandenburg. The city was severely destroyed several times:
1492 by Bishop Johann III of Würzburg von Grumbach and in 1632 by imperial troops from the Wallenstein camp and in the following years by wandering looting piles. In 1803 Prichsenstadt came to the Electorate of Bavaria from the Principality of Ansbach, which had become Prussian in 1792 and which had been in the Franconian Empire since 1500.
Prichsenstadt itself has an almost completely preserved medieval old town, which was first surrounded by a fortification in the 15th century. The city, which adopted the evangelical faith in the 16th century at the latest, was in the middle of the Catholic Hochstift Würzburg and was therefore often exposed to the attacks of its big neighbor. The majority of the building stock goes back to the period after the Thirty Years' War. The old town of Prichsenstadt is placed under special protection as an ensemble.